Sidorov Mikhail Konstantinovich 

Social activist, researcher of the North, honorary member of the Free Economic Society, member of the commission of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society to develop a plan for the study of the northern seas, an outstanding advocate of the development of the North, philanthropist. 
Convinced of the outstanding role of the North in the Russian economy, Sidorov devoted himself to implementing the idea that “the desert Russian northern provinces, which are in very similar climatic conditions with Canada and Norway, can easily achieve prosperity, for which it is necessary to start developing natural resources North". That is why he organized and subsidized polar expeditions, initiated the creation of government commissions for the North and the development of appropriate legislative measures. 
Sidorov was born in Arkhangelsk. His grandfather was ravaged by foreign merchants-steamers, his father died as well. Sidorov studied at the gymnasium, but because of the independent, indomitable nature was excluded. As he wrote himself "... left the gymnasium in 1842, more because the French teacher Otto Kazimirovich Gutkovsky called students from the tax-paying state a Russian creature". He went to serve in the office of his uncle, but he was soon ruined. As an external student, Sidorov passed the exams for the title "home teacher". 
The enterprising and resolute Sidorov tried to organize a private bank in Arkhangelsk, managed to win over the local rich merchants to his side, but met with resolute opposition from the governor. The matter reached the minister, but failed to overcome the resistance of the governor, and in order to avoid arrest Sidorov was forced to leave for Krasnoyarsk. As a home teacher, he took up the upbringing of the children of the resourceful Zyryan entrepreneur Vasily Latkin, whom he devoted to his plans to create Russian Eldorado. 
Mikhail married his student Olga Latkina, self-taught comprehended the basics of chemistry and geology, was fond of the glorious history of seafarers and explorers. 
Sidorov began his entrepreneurial activity with the fact that he began to buy land for the pennies in the Yenisei, which had already been worked out by the miners. Five years, rising higher and higher on the Yenisei and its tributaries, suffering severe hardships, he washed the rock in the basins without losing hope of finding gold. In 1850, happiness smiled at him, fate rewarded him for perseverance and courage. He discovered a gold deposit on the Podkamennaya Tunguska. Having grown rich, Sidorov decided to establish a university in Siberia, but the outbreak of the Crimean War changed his plans. All money Sidorov donated to the needs of the army and started everything from scratch. 
Over the next ten years, the mines of Sidorov gave the treasury three million net profit. He went to Petersburg and offered the Academy of Sciences to accept income from him for the opening of a university in Siberia. However, this time too, Sidorov’s impulse sank in the indifference and heartlessness of the officials. In 1864, the business with the university died down completely. 
In 1859–1864 Sidorov equipped several survey parties in the Turukhansk region, one of which opened a graphite deposit in the Kureika area. Noting his services,
Imperial Russian Geographical Society awarded Sidorov in 1866 a silver medal. He caught fire with a new idea: to use the Siberian rivers to export the wealth of Siberia to Europe, which could have contributed to the development of trade with Western countries that was extremely profitable for the Russian economy. But here he met insurmountable obstacles. “Swimming in the ice is impossible,” stated the President of the Academy of Sciences F.P. Litke, “It is impossible to bakery in the north ... people must be relocated from the North ...” - he was echoed by General Zinoviev, the tutor of the future Emperor Alexander III. Sidorov began to invest his own money in the development of Arctic navigation. In 1869, on the steamer "Georg", coming out of Gammerfest, he tried to go to the mouth of the Yenisei, but without success. Already in the Pechora region, the sea was clogged with solid ice. Sidorov organized a series of expeditions by the English captain I. Wiggins, who several times reached the mouths of the Ob and the Yenisei. Together with A.M. Sibiryakov Sidorov participated in the swimming gear of N.A.-E. Nordenskiöld in 1878–1879 - the first through navigation through the Northeast Passage. He organized a demonstration of the riches of the Russian North at the World Exhibition in London, at an exhibition in Paris, gave presentations and lectures, conducted surveys on the Ukhta River, contrary to the ban of the Minister of State Property, bought drilling equipment at his own expense and discovered oil. His name was known far beyond the borders of Russia, but he never became a prophet in his own country. All the money was spent, for some time he used loans, but there was nothing to pay back debts. That was the end. Sidorov lived his life in humiliating poverty, but he never doubted that he had lived his life correctly.

The merits of Sidorov are marked by the Orders of St. Anna of 2 degrees and St. Stanislav's 2 degrees. 
He died in the Prussian city of Aachen, was buried at the Lazarevskoye cemetery of St. Petersburg. To date, his grave has not been preserved. 
Islands near Novaya Zemlya in the Kostin Shar Strait. 
Cape on the island Rykachev in the Kara Sea near the coast of Khariton Laptev. Named by Russian Polar Expedition in 1900. 
Mountain in the far northeast of the island of Edge, Svalbard archipelago. The coordinates are 78° 13.2'N   22° 54'E. Named by the German geographer A. Peterman. 
Strait between the islands of Lee Smith, Bliss, Bryce and the islands of Brady and Alger in the archipelago of Franz Josef Land. Named by Soviet cartographers in the 1950s.


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