(30.11.1813 – 20.07.1896)
Austrian geographer and explorer of the Alps.
Born in Hrochowteinitz, Bohemia.
Originally a pharmacist, from 1836, under the influence of Austrian botanist Joseph Jaken, he began to study natural sciences at the University of Vienna.
Since 1840, Simoni conducted geomorphological and glaciological studies of the Dachstein mountain. In September 1843 he was the first to spend the night at its summit, in January 1847 he was the first to make a winter ascent to it.
In 1848, Simoni became curator at the Museum of Natural History in Klagenfurt, and over the next year served as chief geologist at the Imperial Geological Institute in Vienna. In 1851, becoming the first professor of geography in Austria, Simoni conducted research in the field of glaciology, climatology, speleology, ecology, hydrology, phytogeography, etc.
The name Simoni is associated with many pioneering initiatives: the first systematic meteorological studies of the eastern Alps, the first limnological studies in the Alps, measurements of the depths of all lakes in the Austrian Alps, on the basis of which he later released the Atlas of the Austrian Alpine Lakes. One of the first Simoni began to use photography in geographical research.
In 1862, Simoni was one of the founders of the Austrian Alpine Club. Today, this organization owns a building at an altitude of 2,205 m, known as the Simoni Hut. Several alpine objects are associated with the name Simoni: Simoni glacier, Simoni ridge, Simoni peak.
In 1885, Simonyi retired, and in 1890 he made his last ascent to Dachstein.He died in St. Gallen, Austria.
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