Sverdrup Harald Ulrik
polar explorer, geophysicist, meteorologist and oceanographer,
member of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and the National Academy
of Sciences in Washington, professor of several Norwegian and
Born in Sogndal in the family of a major bourgeois politician. Otto
Sverdrup is his
He graduated in 1911 from the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of
the University in Oslo, began to engage in research work while still
After graduating from university for several years, Sverdrup was
engaged in meteorological research, working as an assistant at the
Department of Geophysics of the University of Leipzig, led by the
creator of dynamic meteorology by Norwegian professor V. Bjerknes. In
1917, he defended his doctoral thesis on the North Atlantic Passat,
and in the same year he became a participant and scientific leader
of the expedition of R.
Amundsen on the ship
"Mod", which carried out the third through
passage through the entire
the Northeast Passage.
Severe Amundsen spoke very warmly of his comrade: “These are the
kind of people who should be picked up on an expedition, like ours,
people who are not afraid of any work, if it only leads to a goal”. And:
“Of the many wonderful qualities of Sverdrup, I especially admire
one — he studied everything that is between heaven and earth ... . If
this expedition ends successfully, he can proudly raise his head and
say: “You owe me that! ...". You may get the impression of Sverdrup as
a boring scientist. Nothing
could be more wrong. This
is the most natural person in the world, cheerful, cheerful, devoid
of any artificiality, sometimes showing a purely boyish character
usually happens that if someone asks about something, others answer:
Ask Sverdrup! If
you need anything, everyone shouts: Go to Sverdrup !. If
you put it all into one and try to identify Sverdrup, then you have
to say: Wonderful fellow”!
During the first wintering in 1919, he made a luge trip to Cape
received his updated coordinates, close to the modern definition. Second
wintering 1919-1920 held near the island of Aion. Here
Sverdrup obtained valuable materials on the dynamics of the waters
of the East Siberian Sea, its meteorological and upper-air regime,
and also terrestrial magnetism. He
studied the Chukchi language and for seven and a half months
accompanied the local Chukchi in their movement along the coast. The
results of Sverdrup's observations on the life and customs of the
locals were included in the Amundsen report, published in 1921.
During the third wintering at Cape Heart-Kamen, Sverdrup and
Captain "Maud" Visting made a luge trip around the Chukotka Peninsula
to the Bay of the Cross. Sverdrup,
Visting and Olonkin were the only members of the expedition who were
part of it during all seven years of its work. He
was the editor of the scientific reports of the expedition and the
author of a significant part of them.
After returning to his homeland in 1925, Sverdrup was a professor
at the Geophysical Institute in Bergen for five years, and from 1928
to 1940 at the Carnegie Institute Research Association. In
participated in the navigation of the first non-magnetic vessel
"Carnegie" in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, in the same years he
collaborated in the "Aeroarctic" society created by F.
Nansen, in 1931 carried out scientific leadership in the
expedition of H. Wilkins on the submarine "Nautilus", in 1934,
together with the famous polar explorer, Professor H. Alman,
organized an expedition to Svalbard.
From 1936 to 1948, Sverdrup was the director of one of the
largest American oceanographic institutes - the name of Scrips at
the University of California.
During the Second World War, he was engaged in the preparation of
oceanologists, solved a number of scientific tasks on the
instructions of the navy.
In 1948, Sverdrup returned to his homeland and headed the
Norwegian Polar Institute in Oslo. In
the last years of his life, he took an active part in holding
international oceanographic and Arctic conferences.
He died in the province (county) Akershus
cremated, the place of burial of the ashes is unknown.
The rock on
the southern shore of the Maud Bay on the east bank of Taimyr.
Called by R. Amundsen in 1919.
the east side of the Smerenburg fjord, Alberta I Land,
West Svalbard Island. The
coordinates are 79°
42.1'N 11° 13.5'E.
Gustav V Land,
North-Eastern Earth Islands, Svalbard. The
coordinates are 80°
08'N 20° 25'E.