Sverdrup Otto Neumann
Norwegian polar traveler.
Born in Bindalen, in Helgeland. H.
Sverdrup - his
years Sverdrup made his first voyage, in 1878 passed the navigator
exam and went to sea for several years as a captain of the ship.
His fate was such that he first became famous, speaking as the
second number on the brilliant expeditions of F.
Nansen, but even this allows us to consider him the greatest
polar explorer. He
was a fellow Nansen on an expedition to Greenland (1888–1889) and a
captain of the Fram during an expedition to the Central Arctic
Nansen left the ship for a hike to the pole, Sverdrup headed the
expedition for a year and a half. Nansen
had no doubts about the successful completion of the drift. At
the same time, Sverdrup is also known as the chief leader of the
most difficult expeditions to the Arctic.
In 1898–1902 on
the basis of the plan developed by Nansen, Sverdrup conducted an
expedition on the Fram, the purpose of which was to pass through the
Canadian archipelago to the northern shores of Greenland and into
the Central Arctic Basin. The
expedition was subsidized by the Norwegian capitalists Axel
Geyberg (Heiberg) and
the brothers Ellef
and Amund Ringnes. The
expedition set sail, taking food for 5 years. In
August 1898, the Fram entered the
Smith Strait between
Greenland and Ellesmere Island, where it was necessary to get up for
wintering, during which Ellesmere Island was surveyed on dog sleds.
"Fram" in the ice
The following year, the ice situation did not allow it to pass to
the north, and Sverdrup headed west to the
Jones Strait, where they got up for the second wintering already
off the southern coast of Ellesmere Island. Before
the onset of the polar night, the southern coast of the island was
put on the map. In
the spring, in the course of sledding routes, the Norwegians
discovered the island
of Axel-Heiberg and
explored its western coast. In
the summer of 1900, the Jones Strait was managed to pass, but the
ice was not allowed to continue, and the expedition had to return to
the Jones Strait and stay there for the third wintering. In
this campaign the outlines of the northwestern coast of Devon Island
were refined. With
the onset of spring 1901, the polar explorers in two teams completed
extended sled routes, during which the major islands
of Ellef-Ringnes and Amund-Ringnes were
discovered, and the eastern coast of Axel-Heiberg and the western
coast of Ellesmere island were examined in detail. In
1901, it was not possible to get rid of ice. During
the fourth wintering, in April – May, the Norwegians in a sleigh
walked along the narrow Eureka Strait (Eureka) between the
Axel-Heiberg and Ellesmere islands, climbed northward into the
Nansen Strait and
explored both its banks. In
the summer of 1902, the Fram was finally able to free itself from
ice captivity.Despite the fact that due to the opposition of the
powerful forces of nature, the expedition failed to achieve its main
geographic goal, its scientific results turned out to be brilliant. Approximately
150 thousand square meters were discovered and mapped. km
of arctic lands, conducted a large amount of scientific
managed to create an amazingly efficient, well-coordinated team, all
of whose members made a significant contribution to the achievements
of the expedition. Naturally,
many newly discovered objects appeared on the map, named after the
comrades of Sverdrup: Danish Edward Bey (Beyfjord), G.
Isaksen, Swede Herman Georg Simmons (peninsula), P.L. Henriksen,
Sverre Hassela (strait), Oluf Rones (peninsula), Ivar Phosheim
The return of the expedition to Norway was triumphant.
In 1914–1915 Sverdrup
headed an expedition organized with Russian money aboard the ship
"Eclips", equipped at the request of the Russian government to search
for the missing expeditions of V.A. Rusanov and G.L. Brusilov. "Eclips"
wintered off the coast of Taimyr, 300 km from the ships of the
Arctic Ocean hydrographic expedition. A
powerful radio station available on the "Eclips" served as a repeater
for the radiograms of Russian sailors and provided a reliable
connection between the expedition and St. Petersburg. "Eclips"
was evacuated to the mainland by a group of Russian sailors, who
duly appreciated the warm welcome provided by the Norwegians. Guests
also noted the excellent living conditions on the "Eclips": excellent
clothes, varied food, providing a choice of up to 15 first courses,
up to 75 second and third. Of
course, the main merit in this was Sverdrup, who spent his ninth
the "Eclips", grateful Russian sailors, as a token of gratitude to
Sverdrup for the excellent reception, carried him in his arms around
Sverdrup on "Eclips"
(from the archive of N.I.
O. Sverdrup with his group came to "Taimyr". 1915
(from the archive of N.I.
In 1920, on the icebreaker Svyatogor, Sverdrup took part in the
liberation of the icebreaker steamer Solovei Budimirovich from the
ice, which was carried away from the Czech Bay to the Kara Sea, and
in 1921, at the invitation of the Soviet government, participated in
the Kara expedition.
The role of Sverdrup in perpetuating the Fram is great. After
the march to Antarctica, the Norwegian government believed that the
Fram was hardly suitable for further use.So thought R.
Amundsen, planning his expedition to the Arctic. He
received permission to remove from the Fram everything that could be
useful to him for equipping the vessel of the Maud expedition, and
removed from the famous veteran all the masts and arms, davits with
rigging, steering gear, rigging, sails and much more. By
1917, the "Fram" was a pitiful sight. But
the people of Norway did not imagine that the Fram would no longer
public stood up for him, the press, Sverdrup stood at the head of
this movement. On
his initiative, the Fram Conservation Committee was established,
which, after many years of struggle, obtained funds for the
restoration of the vessel and its conservation. Sverdrup
made sure that all the details were restored as they were on his
idea of Sverdrup to install the Fram on the beach inside a special
pavilion was completed in 1936 after the death of the famous
He died in the suburb of Oslo Sandvika. He
was buried in Oslo at the Western Civil Cemetery.
Western civil cemetery in Oslo
Here's how the obituary said about Sverdrup Yu.M. Shokalsky:
“Sverdrup was an extremely silent man and wrote a little; He
took the richest experience of polar navigation. You
had to know him closely - and then he became more talkative and
lively and was an amiable and interesting conversationalist. He
was extremely simple and alien to conceit”.
The merits of Sverdrup were awarded the Norwegian Order of St.
Olaf, the Danish Order of
Merit and the Russian
Order of St.
Anna of 2 degrees.
the north of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the Queen Elizabeth
Islands group. The
largest are Axel-Heiberg, Amund-Ringnes, Axel-Ringnes.
Sverdrup Island in the Kara Sea
(photo by EA Gusev)
An island in
the Kara Sea 60 miles north of Dickson Island. Opened
by O. Sverdrup in 1893, named in his honor by the head of the expedition
An island in
the Lincoln Sea near the northwest coast of Greenland.
the south of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened
and named by the expedition of O. Sverdrup on the "Fram".
the east coast of Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic
and named in 1905 during a boat trip by Lieutenant G. Hansen, a member
of the expedition of R. Amundsen on the "Joa".
Cape and mountains on
the eastern shore of the Smerenburg fjord, island of Western
coordinates are 79º 40'N
on the northern shore of Taimyr. Called
R. Amundsen in 1919.
the islands of Nansen and Bonevi in the archipelago of
Nordenskiöld. Named by E.V. Toll in
by O. Sverdrup, the Fram first passed through this strait.
the islands of Axel-Heiberg and Mien in the Canadian Arctic
in the Bay of Baer on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic
the west coast of Greenland in the Baffin Sea.